Stream Net

Who we are

The StreamNet Library serves the scientific community of the Pacific Northwest and those working in cooperation with the region's fish and wildlife recovery efforts, who are not otherwise served by a specialized library. We also serve the General Public who are interested in the issues surrounding the Columbia Basin and Salmon Recovery Efforts. The Library offers research assistance, interlibrary lending and borrowing, document delivery and other library services.
The Library provides access to technical information and research on the Columbia River basin fisheries, croisieres Seine Paris ecosystems and other relevant subjects for states in the Pacific Northwest. This information can be found in books, journals , computer files, technical reports, and other formats. The Library currently contains approximately 20,000 items and places particular emphasis on less commonly available "grey" literature, such as consultants' reports, state government documents and non-profit organizations' reports. Please search the catalog to find books and reports. If you need further assistance, please feel free to contact the Library.

Search Library Catalog

If you are unable to find a document in the catalog, please contact the StreamNet Library (fishlib 'at' for assistance
Due to firewall restrictions, you will need to copy and paste your 'shopping cart' to a regular email if you want to request materials from the library.

The Northwest Fish Culture Conference history and recent proceedings are now available at the StreamNet Library. For donations of proceeding materials contact the StreamNet Library (more...)

The Aquatic Commons is a digital library being developed and hosted by the International Association of Aquatic Marine Science Libraries Information Centers (IAMSLIC)(more...)


Regional Librarian : Lenora Oftedahl IM (Yahoo): katzen0466
Assistant Librarian : David Liberty
Library Technician : Gabe Sheoships
General Inquiries: (503) 238-0667

croisiere sur la seine

StreamNet Library Services

Reference & Referral:

The Library Staff will be happy to answer reference questions via analog or digital means. We cannot conduct in-depth research (reading, summarizing, analyzing). Library staff have access to many indexing and abstracting services. We will be happy to conduct literature searches with provision of search terms.

We will also refer you to other libraries, agencies, or individuals that may be more useful or appropriate for your research.

Fees: Requests requiring less than 1/2 hour of staff time are answered free of charge. However, in-depth research requests exceeding that time will be billed in full hour increments at $60 per hour. These fees include staff time based on hourly rates.

Interlibrary Lending & Borrowing:

Many libraries will not lend materials to individuals not in their service area. We facilitate borrowing items for customers.

Requests to borrow materials can take anywhere from 1 hour to 6 weeks. There is a maximum of 10 requests per person, per day. Exceptions may be made if time allows. A person may have 5 books checked out via interlibrary loan at one time. Requests will be held and processed in a round robin.

Fees: We try to borrow from free lenders, but many libraries now charge to lend materials. The Library will cover any charges (for participants) up to $20.00 and will invoice the customer for any charges exceeding that amount. We will charge back to non-participants for any fees charged by other libraries.

We are a reciprocal library. We charge other libraries what they charge us.


The Library complies with Fair Use Guidelines and Copyright Law. If staff determine that the copies being requested are outside these guidelines, we will not make the copy. The customer will be notified.

Fees: We charge $.20 per sheet for use of the copy machine. Our current copier makes double-sided copies. If staff make the copies for you, the charge is $.25 per sheet.


The Library will use the fastest and most efficient means of delivery to get information to customers. These are some of our options, in order of preference. We will be happy to negotiate each situation to our mutual satisfaction.

  1. Most items will be made available electronically. Following Copyright Law, an email will be sent to the customer with the file as an attachment or details for downloading the file. File size will determine the means of electronic delivery.

  2. Federal Express or other overnight service: If you need overnight delivery of printed copy, please provide an account number for charging.

  3. The U.S. Postal Service and in person delivery by Library staff are also options.

StreamNet Library Location

Physical Address : 729 NE Oregon, Ste 190, Portland, OR

We are across from the State of Oregon Building, near Lloyd Center.
The MAX line runs along Holladay Street. Please use the NE 7th Ave MAX stop.

Parking for StreamNet Library visitors is available on the streets or in Liberty Parking across 7th St.

The library is wheelchair accessible. Please use the door at the rear of the building.

Mailing Address : StreamNet Library
Columbia River Inter-Tribal Fish Commission
729 NE Oregon St, STE 190
Portland, Oregon 97232-2107

Email Address :

Telephone : 503-238-0667 Fax : 503-235-4228



Referencing information in a publication serves several purposes. First and foremost, it lets your readers know that you are not making things up, and that you have consulted authoritative sources for your information. Second, it provides a path for your readers to retrace your steps, should they wish to do so. Thus, enough information must be provided to allow a person to find the source. Third, referencing information provides a framework for the logical progression of the arguments you are making in your report. Therefore, the more accurate and complete your citations are, the more they benefit your readers and grant higher credibility to your writing.

Citing documents from the World Wide Web, however, is tricky due to the dynamic nature of most websites. Citing web-generated data is even trickier. This is a developing art and, though standards are being developed, the results may never be as clear or dependable as for published print sources.

The following are guidelines that we hope will help you. As with any citation guidelines, these will show you the elements required in your citation. The exact format may vary depending on where you are publishing your report. In the descriptions and examples given, the following order and format are used:

Author (if known), Title (if known), [type of document (optional) and medium]. Place of publication : Publisher, Date of publication [date of visit to site]. . Search parameters (if needed).


Author - Sometimes you may have instead an editor, compiler, or the material may be an adaptation of someone else's work. If so, indicate this in parentheses.

Title - Do not make up a title. If what you are citing has no explicit title, use '(no title given).'

Type of document - This is optional; use 'graph,' 'map,' 'table,' 'photograph,' etc. if it helps.

Medium - In all of these examples, the medium is '[online]'. For other resources you cite you may need to use 'disk', 'CD-ROM', etc.

Publishing information - This is not always easy to determine. For website-generated material, use 'Portland (OR) : StreamNet.' For other material, try to determine who published it and where they are located. Note that the publishing agency is not always the same as the author agency. If the date of publication is unknown, leave blank. If you are fairly certain about the publication date but it is not explicitly stated on the page, follow the date with a question mark.

Date of visit to site - Use the format [dd month yyyy], where day and year are numeric, and the month is text. For example, use [03 January 2007] or [03 Jan. 2007] to represent January 3rd, 2007.

URL - Preface this with 'URL: ' and include the address in < >, followed by a period.

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Citing text found via StreamNet

First of all, be sure to note the site that the text is actually coming from. StreamNet has several reports as well as other information resources originating from our site. We also link to information from many other sites. It is most useful to reference the originating location.

Example 1:

You have gone to the section on the Fish and Wildlife Program project selection process and would like to cite the report given on the Deschutes subbasin.

Deschutes River Subbasin [report online]. Portland (OR) : Northwest Power and Conservation Council, 1997? [17 May 1998]. URL:

Example 2:

You have gone to the 'Public Education' section and found a factsheet that you would like to cite.

Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission (adapt.), Where are the salmon, when? [factsheet online]. Portland (OR) : StreamNet [17 May 1998]. URL:

Example 3:

You have found the full text of a report that is also available in published hard copy. You have two choices here (1) obtain the report and cite it as a normal paper document (preferred) or (2) cite it as an electronic document, but note its availability elsewhere.

Anderson, Duane A., et al. Report on the Status of Salmon and Steelhead in the Columbia River Basin - 1995 [report online]. Portland (OR) : Bonneville Power Administration, 1996. [17 May 1998]. URL: Also available as BPA report number 65130-1.

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Citing ad-hoc information created by the StreamNet website

One of the more uncommon features of the StreamNet website is its ability to generate output 'on the fly' and to allow the user to customize parameters. In these cases, just giving the URL for the site is of limited usefulness. The search parameters must also be included. Also in these cases, there is no author to cite; it is suggested that you cite StreamNet as the publisher.

If you are citing a map or a table or a graph that has been derived from several sources (which may or may not be evident), include all information necessary for a person to retrace your steps. If you are citing something derived from a single source, see below.

Example 4:

Flathead Subbasin: westslope cutthroat trout [map online]. Portland (OR) : StreamNet [10 October 2005].
ies,ColumbiaSubbasin2001&Species=21&ColumbiaSubbasin2001=74&DataCategory=23&_Count=525>. Data Category = "Fish distribution"; Species = "Westslope cutthroat trout"; Columbia Subbasin = "Flathead."

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Citing information extracted from a single printed text source

a. citing a data point

If you are citing a particular data point, you should cite the printed text source, as it has more permanence and is the original source. In fact, even though the data may be on the StreamNet web site, it is always good to see the data in context, therefore it is advised that you look at the source document. Note that all StreamNet data are referenced to source documents and that these documents are available via the StreamNet library. For reference information, go to or click on the reference found through your online query.

b. citing a table or graph

If you are citing a table or a graph that actually appears in a printed text source, see the above guidelines. If you are using a table or a graph from the website that was created from a single source, you must cite the website, but you might also consider referencing the source.

Example 5:

Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (comp.), (no title given), [graph online]. Portland (OR) : StreamNet [17 May 1998]. URL: Data category = "Adult Return - Redd Counts"; Species = "Chinook"; Run = "Fall"; HUC4 = "17090001 Willamette R, M Fk & Tribs". Data derived from: Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife. Columbia Basin system planning, salmon and steelhead production plan: Middle Fork Willamette River, Willamette River subbasin, Portland (OR) : Northwest Power and Conservation Council, 1990.

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Citing StreamNet information

The StreamNet database may be downloaded in its entirety as a Microsoft Access file. For complex applications where a high degree of verification is required (e.g. a dissertation), it may be appropriate to download the database, conduct analysis using the database, and then cite the StreamNet database as the source. This has the advantage of providing a physical reference that is static, as opposed to the more dynamic Internet reference. Citing the entire database in most cases is not appropriate and should be done only in the above described situations; a citation of this type is of limited usefulness to your readers.

Note that the StreamNet database is archived every six to twelve months to track database development and to provide static references. These archived versions of the database are available for download. Please also note that the archive consists of data only, and that the website in its entirety is NOT archived.

Example 6:

StreamNet Database (Version 98.3) [database downloaded to disk]. Portland (OR) : StreamNet, April 1998. [17 May 1998]. URL:

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Citing StreamNet GIS Data

StreamNet provides numerous GIS data sets for download. These GIS data sets may be manipulated using GIS software to conduct spatial analyses and to build custom maps. Metadata are provided for all GIS data sets distributed by StreamNet. When citing a GIS data set it is best to cite its accompanying metadata instead, because the metadata carry the pertinent information needed to evaluate and acquire the data set and contact its stewards. As with the online database, users should cite the year of data set publication (listed in the metadata) as well as the date that the files were downloaded. When a GIS data set is used in a map, it is customary to simply identify StreamNet and other data providers under a Sources heading, along with the date the map was compiled. Maps compiled in cooperation with the StreamNet project should carry the StreamNet logo.

Example 7:

StreamNet GIS Data (2003). Metadata for Pacific Northwest coho salmon fish distribution spatial data set. Portland (OR) : StreamNet, May 2003. [31 Jan 2005]. URL:

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The above guidelines were prepared after having consulted the following sources:

Excerpts from International Standard ISO 690-2 [document online]. Ottawa : International Organization for Standardization, 1997 [14 May 1998]. URL: [Original source now available at]

Land, T. [a.k.a. Beads] Web Extension to American Psychological Association Style (WEAPAS): proposed standard for referencing online documents in scientific publications (Rev.1.4.4) [document online]. March 30, 1998 [14 May 1998]. URL:

StreamNet staff, Personal Communication, May 18-19, 1998.

StreamNet Website [website online]. 1997-1998 [17 May 1998]. URL:

Walker, Janice R. Columbia online style: MLA-style citations of electronic sources (Vers. 1.2) [document online] January 1995 (Rev. 11/97) [13 May 1998]. URL: [Original source now available at]

For additional assistance, please feel free to contact the StreamNet Librarian at or by phone at 503-731-1304.

These guidelines are provided as a service from the StreamNet Library. You are welcome to make links to this document but please do not copy or redistribute it without giving proper credit.


Document Description HTML Acrobat MS Word
StreamNet Vision and Strategic Plan - Dec 2009 N/A N/A
StreamNet FY 2009 Statement of Work N/A N/A
StreamNet FY 2008 Annual Report N/A N/A
StreamNet FY 2007 Annual Progress Report N/A N/A
StreamNet Website Use 2007 N/A N/A
StreamNet FY 2007 Statement of Work - REVISED N/A N/A
StreamNet FY 2007 Statement of Work N/A N/A
StreamNet FY 2006 Annual Progress Report N/A N/A
StreamNet Vision and Strategic Plan - March 2006 N/A N/A
StreamNet FY 2006 Statement of Work - REVISED - 7/11/06 N/A N/A
StreamNet FY 2006 Statement of Work N/A N/A
StreamNet FY 2006 1st Quarter Progress Report N/A N/A
StreamNet FY 2005 Annual Progress Report N/A
StreamNet FY 2005 4th Quarter Progress Report N/A
StreamNet FY 2005 3rd Quarter Progress Report N/A
StreamNet FY 2005 2nd Quarter Progress Report N/A
StreamNet FY 2005 1st Quarter Progress Report N/A
StreamNet 2005 Work Statement N/A
StreamNet FY 2004 Annual Progress Report N/A N/A
StreamNet 2004 Work Statement N/A
StreamNet FY 2004 4th Quarter Progress Report N/A
StreamNet FY 2004 3rd Quarter Progress Report N/A
StreamNet FY 2004 2nd Quarter Progress Report N/A
StreamNet FY 2004 1st Quarter Progress Report N/A
StreamNet FY 2003 Annual Progress Report N/A


Northwest Power and Conservation Council (NPCC)
NPCC Fish and Wildlife Program
Draft Amended Fish and Wildlife Program, 2008-09

Subbasin Plans
Subbasin Plans, 2004 (NPCC)
Subbasin Plans, 2004 (StreamNet data)
Subbasin Planning, EDT data
Subbasin Plans, 1990

Protected Areas
Protected Areas (StreamNet database)
NPCC Protected Areas page

Hatchery assessments
Artificial Production and APRE
Hatchery Scientific Review Group


"Protected Areas" in a Nutshell

"Protected Areas" are stream reaches where the Pacific Northwest Electric Power and Conservation Planning Council (renamed the Northwest Power and Conservation Council in July 2003 and referred to here as "the Council") determined that hydroelectric development would have unacceptable risks of irreversible loss to fish and wildlife. In essence, Protected Areas are places where fish and wildlife values are judged to outweigh the value of electricity those areas could generate. The Protected Areas list was completed in 1988; changes to the list were promulgated in 1989, 1990, and 1992. The Protected Areas protections have continued as a part of the Council's Fish and Wildlife Program dealing with future hydroelectric development.

Under the Northwest Power Act and the Federal Power Act, federal entities — specifically the Bonneville Power Administration, Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, and the Bureau of Reclamation — must consider Protected Area status and restrictions when making decisions regarding hydroelectric facility permits and access to electricity from those facilities. Inclusion in a "Protected Area" does not prohibit hydroelectric development at a site. However, the Council 1) calls on FERC not to license a new hydroelectric development in a Protected Area, and 2) calls on BPA not to acquire the power from such a project should one be licensed by FERC, nor to allow access to the Pacific Northwest-Pacific Southwest Intertie (the "power grid") in a way that would undermine the protected areas policy.

The Protected Areas protections apply to the creation of new hydroelectric facilities in places on the Protected Areas list. Significantly, the following are exempted:

Protected Area designations by the Council are not the only constraint on hydroelectric development. Federal designations such as wilderness areas, wild and scenic rivers, and other designations can constrain hydroelectric development, as can state statutes. This Protected Areas list is that developed by the Council, and does not necessarily list all federal and state protections. Here are some other statutes and policies under which hydroelectric development may be limited.

(Note that this web page contains a summary of information and does not provide definitive information other than the list of stream reaches which were granted Protected Areas status by the Council, and the protected resources for each of these reaches. The "Links to Documentation" section below can help you find definitive legal information. Also, you can visit the Council's Protected Areas web page for further information.)

Additional Background and Documentation

Beginning in 1983, the Council directed extensive studies of existing habitat and analyzed alternative means of protection. In 1988, the Council concluded that:

  1. the studies had identified fish and wildlife resources of critical importance to the region;
  2. mitigation techniques cannot assure that all adverse impacts of hydroelectric development on these fish and wildlife populations will be mitigated;
  3. even small hydroelectric projects may have unacceptable individual and cumulative impacts on these resources; and
  4. protecting these resources and habitats from hydroelectric development is consistent with an adequate, efficient, economical, and reliable power supply.

The Council, relying on these studies, designated certain river reaches in the basin as "protected areas," where the Council believes hydroelectric development would have unacceptable risks of loss to fish and wildlife species of concern, their productive capacity, or their habitat. River reaches to be protected are those reaches or portions of reaches listed on the "Protected Areas List" adopted by the Council on August 10, 1988, and subsequently. For each river reach listed on the Protected Areas List, the fish and wildlife to be protected are those on the list.

We have obtained all relevant documentation for the Protected Areas that are available to us. These documents have been converted to pdf format and can be found here.

Determining if a Site is in the Council's Protected Areas List

Where to Find the Protected Areas List
To determine if a site is in a protected area, use one of the following methods.

Protected Areas Database

This database contains the entire list with all updates applied. At this time it is the most reliable list, though not the easiest one to use. The list is in a Microsoft Access database which has been zipped to speed download. You will need Winzip or another zip program to unzip the file. (Depending on your computer's settings, Windows XP and Vista may do this for you.) You will need Microsoft Access 2000 or later to read the file.
StreamNet Query System
The query system lets you find stream reaches using geographic criteria you can select yourself -- such as getting a list of protected areas in a particular 4th-field HUC. This list is nearly complete, but does not yet reflect all the 1989-1992 changes. It is not as easy to use as the mapper, but is easier than the downloadable database. Select specific search criteria on the left to narrow the list before trying to view the list.
StreamNet Protected Areas Mapper
The Protected Areas mapper lets you find stream reaches on a map and determine if they are in a protected area. However, some of the stream reaches do not reflect the 1989-1992 changes. Also, approximately 1/6 of the stream reaches in the list do not show up on the mapper (the next section explains why this is so). You can use the mapper as a good first indication, but do not depend on it for definitive Protected Area status.
How to Interpret the Reach Codes to Determine Real-World Stream Reaches
Using one of the above three methods will give you a reach code and a reach description. However, knowing for sure what is being referred to is sometimes tricky. By using the mapper method you can see the stream reaches (when available) on a map, and thus know which stream reach is meant. When using one of the other two methods there are two ways to determine the specific location referred to. In instances when the reach description is not ambiguous, the simple text description of the reach is sufficient. For example, "Hood R from Odell Cr to Ditch Cr" is clear and unambiguous, as there is only one Hood River in the Pacific Northwest, and the names of the Hood River tributaries defining the reach are clear and can be found on maps. In other instances, though, streams or their tributaries may have commonplace names — "Mill Creek" or "Rock Creek" for example — or may be unnamed. To determine with certainty the stream reaches referred to in these instances, it is necessary to use the reach code and refer to the mapping system used for producing the Protected Areas list.

At the time the Protected Areas list was created, the state-of-the-art stream mapping system was the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's "River Reach Number" system, which was based on 1:250,000 scale topographic maps. That system defined stream reaches only for streams appearing on the 1:250,000 scale maps; smaller streams were not included. Reaches were defined from the mouth of each stream to its first tributary shown on the 1:250,000 scale topographic map, from the first tributary shown to the second shown, etc., until reaching the headwaters. A numeric code was created to represent each reach. Thus a single stream may be represented by a single reach code, or by multiple reach codes. Unfortunately, many streams in the Protected Areas list are too small to appear on the 1:250,000 scale topographic maps. For this reason, the original EPA River Reach File maps were modified by drawing in streams by hand and creating new reach codes, by splitting original reaches, and by modifying or deleting reaches that were found to be in error. These modified River Reach File Hydrologic Segment Plots define the reach codes used for nearly all the Protected Areas. To determine with certainty the stream reach a code is meant to represent, you must refer to these modified River Reach File Hydrologic Segment Plots.

There are 19 exceptions from the Cowlitz River drainage and one exception from the Skyomish River drainage that do not use the modified River Reach File codes to indicate reach location. The reach codes listed for these exceptions begin with "LLID". The 13-digit number following "LLID" is the stream code currently used by StreamNet to represent a stream. (These codes refer to entire streams, not just to stream reaches as the EPA system does.) These 20 streams are currently listed only in the downloadable database and cannot be found via the query system or the mapper.

Understanding the location coding used for Protected Areas is not simple, and has not been fully explained here. If you need help, please contact us via email at or call us at 503-595-3100.

Links to Documentation
We have gathered all the documentation available to us and created pdf files for download. The entire list of documents specific to the Protected Areas list is organized as shown below. The River Reach Files used to define the locations are available here.


Our Interactive Mapping applications provide an easy way for you to find, query and display fisheries information for the Pacific Northwest (see browser requirements). Please send us your questions or comments via the "Contact StreamNet" button on the left.
StreamNet Interactive Maps
Launch StreamNet Interactive Mapper

StreamNet Mapper
View fish distribution data and query the StreamNet database by selecting map elements (streams, hatchery facilities, etc.) Includes USGS Hydrologic Unit and Columbia River Subbasin Planning Boundaries. Mapping Application Tip*
Launch Protected Areas Interactive Mapper

Protected Areas Mapper
View and query the 1988 Protected Areas database through a simple interactive map interface. The Protected Areas are stream reaches that are designated as protected from hydroelectric development.
Launch NW Critical Habitat Mapper
Northwest Critical Habitat Mapper
View the final critical habitat designations for 12 Evolutionarily Significant Units (ESUs) of Pacific salmon and steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in NOAA Fisheries' Northwest Region. For more information on the final rule (released August 12, 2005) please visit NOAA's Critical Habitat Website.
Browser Requirements & Additional Tips:

Browser compatibility & performance: Our mapping applications work on most modern browsers. Application performance, however, will vary depending on your choice of browser. We suggest using a recent browser version that is optimized for handling javascript. Users with slower dial-up internet connections do need to be patient.

Allow pop-up windows: If you experience problems with some viewer functions, check to ensure that your browser is set to allow pop-up windows from our servers at Most browsers will notify you when a pop-up window is being blocked and display a menu of options for adjusting the pop-up blocker settings. The following links provide guidance on how to adjust these settings for Mozilla Firefox and Internet Explorer.

Read the user's guide & get the right tool: It is important to understand the "Tools" menu on the top or left hand side of the viewer. The best way to become familliar with the different viewer functions is to click the mapper's "help" link and read the user's guide.

GIS software is required to use these datasets, provided as zipped shapefiles with FGDC compliant metadata in XML and plain text format. Send us your questions and custom data requests via the "Contact StreamNet" button on the left.